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Eupithecia innotata
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Geometridae
Tribe: Eupitheciini
Genus: Eupithecia
Curtis, 1825[1]
  • Arcyonia Hübner, 1825
  • Bohatschia Schütze, 1960
  • Catarina Vojnits & De Laever, 1973
  • Delaeveria Schütze, 1961
  • Dietzea Schütze, 1956
  • Dochephora Warren, 1895
  • Dolichopyge Warren, 1900
  • Dyscymatoge Hübner, 1825
  • Epicaste Gumppenberg, 1887
  • Eucymatoge Hübner, [1825]
  • Euphitecia Carnelutti & Michieli, 1958
  • Eurypeplodes Warren, 1893
  • Heteropithecia Vojnits, 1985
  • Hypepirritis Hübner, [1825]
  • Lamelluncia Mironov, 1990
  • Lepiodes Guenée, 1858
  • Leucocora Hübner, 1825
  • Mnesiloba Warren, 1901
  • Neopithecia Vojnits, 1985
  • Pena Walker, 1863
  • Petersenia Schütze, 1958
  • Phaulostathma Warren, 1900
  • Propithecia Vojnits, 1985
  • Sebastia Warren, 1895 (preocc. Kirby, 1892)
  • Stenopla Warren, 1900
  • Tarachia Hübner, 1825
  • Tephroclystia Hübner, 1825[1]
  • Tephroclystis Meyrick, 1892
  • Thysanoctena Warren, 1904
  • Trichoclystis Warren, 1904
  • Zygmena Boie, 1839

Eupithecia is the largest genus of moths of the family Geometridae,[3] and the namesake and type genus of tribe Eupitheciini. Species in the genus are, like those of other genera in the tribe, commonly known as pugs.[4] The genus is highly speciose, with over 1400 species, and members of the genus are present in most of the world with exception of Australasia.[3] Roughly a quarter of described Eupithecia species occur in the Neotropical realm, where they have an especially high species diversity in the montane rain forests of the Andes.[5] The genus includes a few agricultural pest species, such as the currant pug moth, Eupithecia assimilata, which is a pest on hops,[6] and the cloaked pug moth, Eupithecia abietaria, which is a cone pest in spruce seed orchards.[7]

Adult specimens of Eupithecia are typically small, often between 12 and 35 mm, with muted colours, and display a large amount of uniformity between species.[3] As a result, identification of a specimen as part of genus Eupithecia is generally easy, but identifying the exact species is difficult and often reliant on examination of the dissected genitals.[3] Most species share a characteristic resting pose in which the forewings are held flat at a right angle to the body—that is, the costal margins of both forewings form a more-or-less horizontal line—while the hindwings are largely covered by the forewings.[8] They are generally nocturnal.[3]

Pug Moth caterpillar Eupithecia sp.

Of the species where the larval behaviour is known, most feed from the flowers and seeds of their food plants rather than the foliage.[3] Many species have a very specific food plant. The larvae of all but one[9] of the endemic species of Eupithecia from Hawaii are ambush predators of a wide variety of insects and spiders.[10] These ambush predators have raptorial legs, with which they grab prey that comes into contact with their hind end.[10]


This is a list of all described species.

Common pug, Eupithecia miserulata, feeding on Rudbeckia serotina
Eupithecia , pupa





















Species of unknown status[edit]

  • Eupithecia lavicaria Fuchs, 1902 (syn: Eupithecia lavicata Prout, 1914), described from Norway.
  • Eupithecia minutana Treitschke
  • Eupithecia robusta Dietze, 1910


  1. ^ a b Mironov, Vladimir (2003). Larentinae II: (Perizomini and Eupitheciini). Brill. p. 72. ISBN 978-90-04-30863-3. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  2. ^ Savela, Markku. "Eupithecia Curtis, 1825". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Mironov, Vladimir; Galsworthy, Anthony Charles (1 November 2013). The Eupithecia of China: A Revision. BRILL. pp. 1, 6–7, 11. ISBN 978-90-04-25453-4. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  4. ^ Plant, C. W.; Petty, S. J.; Farino, T.; Botham, M. S. (2014). "Eupithecia exiguata (Hübner, [1813]) new to the Iberian Peninsula, with notes on other pug moths Eupitheciini in Cantabria, Spain (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)". SHILAP Revista de lepidopterología. 42 (165). ISSN 0300-5267. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  5. ^ a b Vargas, Héctor A. (25 October 2021). "A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) from the Andes of northern Chile". Nota Lepidopterologica. 44: 239–247. doi:10.3897/nl.44.73247. S2CID 239978760. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  6. ^ Campbell, C. A. M.; Tregidga, E. L.; Hall, D. R.; Ando, T.; Yamamoto, M. (March 2007). "Components of the sex pheromone of the currant pug moth, Eupithecia assimilata, a re-emergent hop pest in UK". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 122 (3): 265–269. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.2006.00513.x. S2CID 84922209. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  7. ^ Wang, H. L.; Svensson, G. P.; Jakobsson, J.; Jirle, E. V.; Rosenberg, O.; Francke, W.; Anderbrant, O.; Millar, J. G.; Löfstedt, C. (27 September 2014). "Sex pheromone of the cloaked pug moth, Eupithecia abietaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a pest of spruce cones". Journal of Applied Entomology. 139 (5): 352–360. doi:10.1111/jen.12167. S2CID 83838433. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  8. ^ VanDyk, John. "Genus Eupithecia - Identification". Identification, Images, & Information For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin For the United States & Canada. Iowa State University. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  9. ^ Hembry, David H.; Bennett, Gordon; Bess, Emilie; Cooper, Idelle; Jordan, Steve; Liebherr, James; Magnacca, Karl N.; Percy, Diana M.; Polhemus, Dan A.; Rubinoff, Daniel; Shaw, Kerry L.; O’Grady, Patrick M. (1 December 2021). "Insect Radiations on Islands: Biogeographic Pattern and Evolutionary Process in Hawaiian Insects". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 96 (4): 257, 271–272. doi:10.1086/717787. S2CID 245335580. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  10. ^ a b Montgomery, Steven L. (1 November 1983). "Carnivorous caterpillars: the behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands". GeoJournal. 7 (6): 549–556. doi:10.1007/BF00218529. ISSN 1572-9893. S2CID 189888740.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Mironov, Vladimir (26 September 2013). "New species and checklist of Turkish Eupithecia Curtis (Geometridae: Larentiinae)". Zootaxa. 3717 (1): 39–52. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3717.1.3. PMID 26176093. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Mironov, Vladimir; Šumpich, Jan (15 June 2022). "New species of the genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) from China. Part VII" (PDF). Zootaxa. 5154 (3): 289–304. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5154.3.3. PMID 36095621. S2CID 249696920. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  13. ^ a b Mironov, Vladimir; Galsworthy, Anthony Charles (5 March 2014). "A survey of Eupithecia Curtis, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) in Mongolia with descriptions of two new species" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3774 (2): 101–130. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3774.2.1. PMID 24871410.
  14. ^ a b Enkhtur, Khishigdelger; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Pfeiffer, Martin (May 2020). "Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Geometrid Moths (Geometridae, Lepidoptera) in Mongolia". Diversity. 12 (5): 185. doi:10.3390/d12050186.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Šumpich, Jan; Mironov, Vladimir (7 October 2022). "New species of the genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) from China. Part VIII" (PDF). Zootaxa. 5194 (4): 561–574. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5194.4.5. S2CID 252804264. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Mironov, Vladimir; Šumpich, Jan (9 December 2022). "New species of the genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) from China. Part IX" (PDF). Zootaxa. 5219 (3): 276–286. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5219.3.5. S2CID 254488323. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  17. ^ Skou, Peder; Mironov, Vladimir; Rietz, Hartmut (29 May 2017). "Eupithecia gypsophilata, a new species in the graphata species group of the genus Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae)". Zootaxa. 4272 (2): 291–295. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4272.2.10. PMID 28610298. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  18. ^ King, Gareth Edward; Montesinos, José Luis Viejo (24 April 2020). "The Spanish endemic Eupithecia gypsophilata Skou, Mironov & Rietz, 2017 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Larentiinae): a contribution to an understanding of its early stages". Entomologist's Gazette. 71 (2): 93–97. doi:10.31184/G00138894.712.1752. S2CID 219017531. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  19. ^ Seven, Erdem; Mironov, Vladimir; Akin, Kesran (11 September 2019). "A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Larentiinae) from Turkey". Zootaxa. 4668 (3): zootaxa.4668.3.9. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4668.3.9. PMID 31716623. S2CID 203352153. Retrieved 17 January 2023.

Other sources[edit]

  • Chinery, Michael (1986). Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe (Reprinted 1991).
  • Skinner, Bernard (1984). Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles.

External links[edit]